Monday, June 1, 2020

Time Value of Money and Financial Statement Analysis - 825 Words

Time Value of Money and Financial Statement Analysis (Essay Sample) Content: IntroductionThe concept of time value of money is one of the fundamental concepts in the field of finance. It simply posits that a dollar today is worth more than a dollar at a future date. There are various reasons that have been put forward to explain the time value of money. One of them is the fact that almost every economy experiences inflation every year. Inflation is defined as the general rise in the prices of commodity without an accompanying rise in income of the consumers (Rappaport, 2006). This causes the purchasing power of a dollar to fall and in effect, a consumer needs more dollars in order to maintain the same consumption levels he/she had before the inflation (Hillman Keim, 2006).It is from this concept that finance scholars came up with the idea of the time value of money. Since its inception, it has become a major decision point on many finance decisions and has in effect, given rise to many tools to evaluate the time value of money (Rappaport, 200 6). Finance decisions which are based on Time value of many are investments, Financing, operating, and even revenue distribution decisions such as coming up with dividend policies.In order to evaluate the time value of money, investors come up with a discounting rate which they use to calculate the present value or a future value of a given amount of money. The discounted rate, commonly referred to as the cost of capital is usually the minimum rate of return which money lenders are willing to lend out their money to borrowers. This forms a major decision point since any offer of a less return than the discount rate always indicates that the investment project is not financially viable. This report presents both the present value and future value of given amounts of money. The cash flows analyzed are lump sum, annuities, and perpetuities.Present ValuesAmountDiscount ratePeriod (Yeaars)PVIFPresent Value1 $ 100,000.00 5%5Top of Form0.7835 Bottom of Form $ 78,350.00  $ 200,000.00 10%10Top of Form0.3855 Bottom of Form $ 77,100.00  Future Values FVIF2 $ 100,000.00 5%5Top of Form1.27628Bottom of Form $ 127,628.00  $ 200,000.00 10%Top of Form2.59374Bottom of Form $ 518,748.00  $ - 3 Present Values of Annuitiess PVIFA $ 100,000.00 5%54.3295 $ 432,950.00  $ 200,000.00 10%106.1446 $ 1,228,920.00 4Future Value of annutiesFVIFA $ 100,000.00 5%55.5256 $ 552,560.00  $ 200,000.00 10%1015.9374 $ 3,187,480.00 5Preent Value of perpetuitiesPVIF $ 100,000.00 5%5 $ 2,000,000.00  $ 200,000.00 10%10 $ 2,000,000.00 The various measurement parameters which are used alongside the discount rate are discussed in the ensuing text as presented in the above table. The first parameter is the present value. This is the value that is attached to a future receipt of payment of some money at a discounted rate of return. In the case below, the present value of $100,000 that is to be received 5 years from now is $78,350. What this ideally means is that an individual who expects to receive $100,000 in five years can calculate what that amount of money is worth today. With the discounting rate of 5% per year, the value of the $100,000 is discounted to become $78,350. The higher the discounting value of a present value, the lower the present value. For instance, if the discounting value of the $100,000 was higher than the given 5%, the present value would be significantly lower than the current $78,350The Second parameter is the future value. This is the opposite of the present value. It is usually the future value of a certain amount of money one has at the presently. It is particularly useful when determining if a project is viable since the discounting rate is usually the rate of return which is given to the money lender (Coase, 2008). The future value therefore, will always give an indication of whether the returns expected from a project result in wealth creation or not. There are different scenarios where the present value and future values are calculated. Th... Time Value of Money and Financial Statement Analysis - 825 Words Time Value of Money and Financial Statement Analysis (Essay Sample) Content: IntroductionThe concept of time value of money is one of the fundamental concepts in the field of finance. It simply posits that a dollar today is worth more than a dollar at a future date. There are various reasons that have been put forward to explain the time value of money. One of them is the fact that almost every economy experiences inflation every year. Inflation is defined as the general rise in the prices of commodity without an accompanying rise in income of the consumers (Rappaport, 2006). This causes the purchasing power of a dollar to fall and in effect, a consumer needs more dollars in order to maintain the same consumption levels he/she had before the inflation (Hillman Keim, 2006).It is from this concept that finance scholars came up with the idea of the time value of money. Since its inception, it has become a major decision point on many finance decisions and has in effect, given rise to many tools to evaluate the time value of money (Rappaport, 200 6). Finance decisions which are based on Time value of many are investments, Financing, operating, and even revenue distribution decisions such as coming up with dividend policies.In order to evaluate the time value of money, investors come up with a discounting rate which they use to calculate the present value or a future value of a given amount of money. The discounted rate, commonly referred to as the cost of capital is usually the minimum rate of return which money lenders are willing to lend out their money to borrowers. This forms a major decision point since any offer of a less return than the discount rate always indicates that the investment project is not financially viable. This report presents both the present value and future value of given amounts of money. The cash flows analyzed are lump sum, annuities, and perpetuities.Present ValuesAmountDiscount ratePeriod (Yeaars)PVIFPresent Value1 $ 100,000.00 5%5Top of Form0.7835 Bottom of Form $ 78,350.00  $ 200,000.00 10%10Top of Form0.3855 Bottom of Form $ 77,100.00  Future Values FVIF2 $ 100,000.00 5%5Top of Form1.27628Bottom of Form $ 127,628.00  $ 200,000.00 10%Top of Form2.59374Bottom of Form $ 518,748.00  $ - 3 Present Values of Annuitiess PVIFA $ 100,000.00 5%54.3295 $ 432,950.00  $ 200,000.00 10%106.1446 $ 1,228,920.00 4Future Value of annutiesFVIFA $ 100,000.00 5%55.5256 $ 552,560.00  $ 200,000.00 10%1015.9374 $ 3,187,480.00 5Preent Value of perpetuitiesPVIF $ 100,000.00 5%5 $ 2,000,000.00  $ 200,000.00 10%10 $ 2,000,000.00 The various measurement parameters which are used alongside the discount rate are discussed in the ensuing text as presented in the above table. The first parameter is the present value. This is the value that is attached to a future receipt of payment of some money at a discounted rate of return. In the case below, the present value of $100,000 that is to be received 5 years from now is $78,350. What this ideally means is that an individual who expects to receive $100,000 in five years can calculate what that amount of money is worth today. With the discounting rate of 5% per year, the value of the $100,000 is discounted to become $78,350. The higher the discounting value of a present value, the lower the present value. For instance, if the discounting value of the $100,000 was higher than the given 5%, the present value would be significantly lower than the current $78,350The Second parameter is the future value. This is the opposite of the present value. It is usually the future value of a certain amount of money one has at the presently. It is particularly useful when determining if a project is viable since the discounting rate is usually the rate of return which is given to the money lender (Coase, 2008). The future value therefore, will always give an indication of whether the returns expected from a project result in wealth creation or not. There are different scenarios where the present value and future values are calculated. Th... Time Value of Money and Financial Statement Analysis - 825 Words Time Value of Money and Financial Statement Analysis (Essay Sample) Content: IntroductionThe concept of time value of money is one of the fundamental concepts in the field of finance. It simply posits that a dollar today is worth more than a dollar at a future date. There are various reasons that have been put forward to explain the time value of money. One of them is the fact that almost every economy experiences inflation every year. Inflation is defined as the general rise in the prices of commodity without an accompanying rise in income of the consumers (Rappaport, 2006). This causes the purchasing power of a dollar to fall and in effect, a consumer needs more dollars in order to maintain the same consumption levels he/she had before the inflation (Hillman Keim, 2006).It is from this concept that finance scholars came up with the idea of the time value of money. Since its inception, it has become a major decision point on many finance decisions and has in effect, given rise to many tools to evaluate the time value of money (Rappaport, 200 6). Finance decisions which are based on Time value of many are investments, Financing, operating, and even revenue distribution decisions such as coming up with dividend policies.In order to evaluate the time value of money, investors come up with a discounting rate which they use to calculate the present value or a future value of a given amount of money. The discounted rate, commonly referred to as the cost of capital is usually the minimum rate of return which money lenders are willing to lend out their money to borrowers. This forms a major decision point since any offer of a less return than the discount rate always indicates that the investment project is not financially viable. This report presents both the present value and future value of given amounts of money. The cash flows analyzed are lump sum, annuities, and perpetuities.Present ValuesAmountDiscount ratePeriod (Yeaars)PVIFPresent Value1 $ 100,000.00 5%5Top of Form0.7835 Bottom of Form $ 78,350.00  $ 200,000.00 10%10Top of Form0.3855 Bottom of Form $ 77,100.00  Future Values FVIF2 $ 100,000.00 5%5Top of Form1.27628Bottom of Form $ 127,628.00  $ 200,000.00 10%Top of Form2.59374Bottom of Form $ 518,748.00  $ - 3 Present Values of Annuitiess PVIFA $ 100,000.00 5%54.3295 $ 432,950.00  $ 200,000.00 10%106.1446 $ 1,228,920.00 4Future Value of annutiesFVIFA $ 100,000.00 5%55.5256 $ 552,560.00  $ 200,000.00 10%1015.9374 $ 3,187,480.00 5Preent Value of perpetuitiesPVIF $ 100,000.00 5%5 $ 2,000,000.00  $ 200,000.00 10%10 $ 2,000,000.00 The various measurement parameters which are used alongside the discount rate are discussed in the ensuing text as presented in the above table. The first parameter is the present value. This is the value that is attached to a future receipt of payment of some money at a discounted rate of return. In the case below, the present value of $100,000 that is to be received 5 years from now is $78,350. What this ideally means is that an individual who expects to receive $100,000 in five years can calculate what that amount of money is worth today. With the discounting rate of 5% per year, the value of the $100,000 is discounted to become $78,350. The higher the discounting value of a present value, the lower the present value. For instance, if the discounting value of the $100,000 was higher than the given 5%, the present value would be significantly lower than the current $78,350The Second parameter is the future value. This is the opposite of the present value. It is usually the future value of a certain amount of money one has at the presently. It is particularly useful when determining if a project is viable since the discounting rate is usually the rate of return which is given to the money lender (Coase, 2008). The future value therefore, will always give an indication of whether the returns expected from a project result in wealth creation or not. There are different scenarios where the present value and future values are calculated. Th... Time Value of Money and Financial Statement Analysis - 825 Words Time Value of Money and Financial Statement Analysis (Essay Sample) Content: IntroductionThe concept of time value of money is one of the fundamental concepts in the field of finance. It simply posits that a dollar today is worth more than a dollar at a future date. There are various reasons that have been put forward to explain the time value of money. One of them is the fact that almost every economy experiences inflation every year. Inflation is defined as the general rise in the prices of commodity without an accompanying rise in income of the consumers (Rappaport, 2006). This causes the purchasing power of a dollar to fall and in effect, a consumer needs more dollars in order to maintain the same consumption levels he/she had before the inflation (Hillman Keim, 2006).It is from this concept that finance scholars came up with the idea of the time value of money. Since its inception, it has become a major decision point on many finance decisions and has in effect, given rise to many tools to evaluate the time value of money (Rappaport, 200 6). Finance decisions which are based on Time value of many are investments, Financing, operating, and even revenue distribution decisions such as coming up with dividend policies.In order to evaluate the time value of money, investors come up with a discounting rate which they use to calculate the present value or a future value of a given amount of money. The discounted rate, commonly referred to as the cost of capital is usually the minimum rate of return which money lenders are willing to lend out their money to borrowers. This forms a major decision point since any offer of a less return than the discount rate always indicates that the investment project is not financially viable. This report presents both the present value and future value of given amounts of money. The cash flows analyzed are lump sum, annuities, and perpetuities.Present ValuesAmountDiscount ratePeriod (Yeaars)PVIFPresent Value1 $ 100,000.00 5%5Top of Form0.7835 Bottom of Form $ 78,350.00  $ 200,000.00 10%10Top of Form0.3855 Bottom of Form $ 77,100.00  Future Values FVIF2 $ 100,000.00 5%5Top of Form1.27628Bottom of Form $ 127,628.00  $ 200,000.00 10%Top of Form2.59374Bottom of Form $ 518,748.00  $ - 3 Present Values of Annuitiess PVIFA $ 100,000.00 5%54.3295 $ 432,950.00  $ 200,000.00 10%106.1446 $ 1,228,920.00 4Future Value of annutiesFVIFA $ 100,000.00 5%55.5256 $ 552,560.00  $ 200,000.00 10%1015.9374 $ 3,187,480.00 5Preent Value of perpetuitiesPVIF $ 100,000.00 5%5 $ 2,000,000.00  $ 200,000.00 10%10 $ 2,000,000.00 The various measurement parameters which are used alongside the discount rate are discussed in the ensuing text as presented in the above table. The first parameter is the present value. This is the value that is attached to a future receipt of payment of some money at a discounted rate of return. In the case below, the present value of $100,000 that is to be received 5 years from now is $78,350. What this ideally means is that an individual who expects to receive $100,000 in five years can calculate what that amount of money is worth today. With the discounting rate of 5% per year, the value of the $100,000 is discounted to become $78,350. The higher the discounting value of a present value, the lower the present value. For instance, if the discounting value of the $100,000 was higher than the given 5%, the present value would be significantly lower than the current $78,350The Second parameter is the future value. This is the opposite of the present value. It is usually the future value of a certain amount of money one has at the presently. It is particularly useful when determining if a project is viable since the discounting rate is usually the rate of return which is given to the money lender (Coase, 2008). The future value therefore, will always give an indication of whether the returns expected from a project result in wealth creation or not. There are different scenarios where the present value and future values are calculated. Th...

Saturday, May 16, 2020

The Epidemic Of The Ebola Outbreak - 1375 Words

It is standard journalistic practice that a story must be news worthy in order for it to be of any significance. Newsworthiness is determined by the following criteria impact, timeliness, prominence, proximity, the bizarre, conflict, human interest, and currency. (SPJ) Reports must demonstrate how their story fits into one of these criteria before it can be considered news. While these factors of newsworthiness are not lost in today’s media, many media outlets have started to sensationalize the news in an effort to get rating. In today’s fragmented news society ratings have become the dominate motive behind news stories. Recently that has been a lot of information in the news concerning the Ebola outbreak. This coverage has posed many questions from an ethical and a legal standpoint. Many of the issues that have plagued the coverage of the Ebola outbreak can be attributed to the consolidation of the American media market. Because of relaxed regulation by the Federal Communication Commission, large corporations have been able to been able to increase their share of the media market. This has given rise to six conglomerates that control 90% of the media in this country. As is the case with any business, the bottom line is going to be the most important thing at the end of the day. The director of The National Press Institute, Andrew Nachison said, â€Å"media managers [have]become so caught up in the economics of the industry that they [do] not recognize they [are]Show MoreRelatedThe Epidemic Outbreak Of Ebola4936 Words   |  20 PagesIntroduction The recent outbreak of Ebola has promoted international involvement from many organizations and governments. Most of these efforts have been focused on short-term solutions to control the disease. However, while many organizations provided medical workers, aid, and supplies to combat Ebola, their actions were insufficient to stop the spread of disease. 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At thatRead MoreEbola Essay851 Words   |  4 PagesEbola Impact on Human Health amp; Hygiene Essay Historically Ebola has had a serious impact on human health and hygiene and still does due to the fact of no vaccine or treatment being discovered, but thanks to improvements in scientific and medical knowledge the virus itself is now controllable. Ebola is the virus Ebolavirus (EBOV), a viral genus, and the disease Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF), a viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF). The virus is named after the Ebola River Valley in the DemocraticRead MoreEbola Epidemic And Impact On Us And African Economies Essay1690 Words   |  7 PagesEBOLA EPIDEMIC AND IMPACT ON US AND AFRICAN ECONOMIES Insert your name Insert course name and code Insert name of the institution Insert name of the instructor Insert date of submission Ebola Epidemic and Impact on US and African Economies The Ebola epidemic is a viral disease that spreads very quickly and has high mortality rate. 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(MSF UK, 2016) Fruit bats are consideredRead MoreThe Epidemic Of South Africa1666 Words   |  7 Pages At the height of the most recent Ebola epidemic in West Africa, fear amongst American citizens about the possibility of a more local outbreak resulted in representatives being pressured into creating harsh policies. One option that representatives of several states endorsed was a mandatory quarantine of all individuals arriving from Ebola-stricken countries. This policy was implemented despite severe criticism from several medical professional organizations including Mà ¨decinsRead MoreReflection Paper On Ebola935 Wo rds   |  4 Pagesknew about. The Ebola outbreak began in 2014, and ended up killing thousands. Unfortunately, the first world didn’t take this epidemic seriously until it was too late to stop it. With a little bit of time, money, man power, and education, this outbreak may have been avoided all together. There were many emotions and thoughts running through my head while watching the Frontline film â€Å"Outbreak,† and most were due to the lack of informational news that was focused on the Ebola outbreak, along with theRead MoreEbola Outbreak Of West Africa1655 Words   |  7 Pagesinternational community was alarmed by the discovery of the Ebola virus. (Schwarz and Siegl, 1996) It was the ‘causative agent’ (Peters and Peters, 2015) of EHF (Ebola hemorrhagic fever). Ebola stems from a virus family know as Filoviridae. The virus targets various parts of the body causing a critical sickness of fever, diarrhoea, vomiting and in severe cases bleeding. Howe ver, infections do not always lead to death. ‘In previous outbreaks, 40-90% of known infections have resulted in death’ (PreventionRead MoreThe Ebola Virus1631 Words   |  7 PagesThe Ebola Virus A virus is an ultramicroscopic infectious organism that, having no independent metabolic activity, can replicate only within a cell of another host organism. A virus consists of a core of nucleic acid, either RNA or DNA, surrounded by a coating of antigenic protein and sometimes a lipid layer surrounds it as well. The virus provides the genetic code for replication, and the host cell provides the necessary energy and raw materials. There are more than 200 viruses thatRead MoreAfrica Case Study1070 Words   |  5 PagesEPIDEMIOLOGY OF THE OUTBREAK IN W. AFRICA In December 2013, the first cases occurred in Guà ©ckà ©dou and Macenta districts, the focus of the epidemic in Guinea. During March 2014, a rise in the numbers of cases in these two districts, in addition to the first reports from Lofa and other districts in Liberia, was followed by the discovery of cases in the capital, Conakry. A second increase in case incidence in Guinea — first in Guà ©ckà ©dou and Macenta and then in the capital — occurred in May and

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

A Young Age - 1166 Words

Tatum explains how white individuals, at a young age are taught by the American culture that they have superiority over people of color. These assumptions can be made based on social media and institutions such as school. Parents also plays a huge role on influencing their children on what to think about on certain groups. For examples, children at a young age watches cartoons and based off of those images, they grow up thinking that those assumptions are accurate. Due to this, they make assumptions on others’ race based on what they learned from the media, school, and also from parents. As a result of this, their mentality has set to only one specific path without challenging it. Omission also plays an important role on how each†¦show more content†¦The society knows that their actions was unacceptable and if students are learning about it then they will want to challenged the system. Stereotypes, omissions, and distortions plays an important role on how Tatum defines the term Prejudice. â€Å"Prejudice† is a preconceived judgement or opinion, usually based on limited information† (32). People in generally all have at some point in their life has prejudice towards one another. This is the assumption that people make towards one another because of their upbringings, social media, or school institutions. This assumptions is what Tatum referred to as â€Å"Cultural racism†; which is the â€Å"cultural images and messages that affirm the assumed superiority of whites and the assumed inferiorty of people of color† (32). These are the assumptions that people have inernalize because of the daily surroundings and environment they are exposed to. The American culture is set up in a way that divides people in a way that they are constantly exposed to â€Å"ethnic jokes of friends and family memebers, and are rarely informed of the accomplisments of oppressed groups, we will develope the negative categorization of those groups that form the basis of prejudice† (32). Some people in general find it fuuny that it is acceptable to make remarks about ones’ race simply because it was what previous people thought it was funny. People have internalized these concepts for so long

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Movie Analysis Fury Essay Example For Students

Movie Analysis Fury Essay Throughout the movie, Fury, there were many times where the characters had to use critical thinking. Critical thinking is when you study a clear, reasoned judgment or decision. Norman Ellison, the main character, and his team were put to the test in many different scenarios. The decisions that one person made ended up affecting the whole team. Critical thinking is important, but it is also important to make judgments quickly and efficiently. What would you do if you had to kill a child, knowing that if you did not, someone else would die? Norman was faced with this conflict. He had to decide if he should shoot the children he saw in the woods or allow them to live. After thinking about it he did not shoot the children, and because he did not do his job and allowed them to live the tank in front of his team got blown to pieces, and his men died. I do not believe he made the right decision because when it came down to it, even though they were young children they were still the enemy. He should have shot them and have been quicker about it. He probably thought it through, and at the time shooting children most likely sounded crazy to him, but after his people got blown up it brought him back to reality. I believe that was one of the turning points to him making better decisions. There was a time when Wardaddy, Brad Pitt, had to decide how to help Norman become a better soldier. He had the choice to let some of the other soldiers kill the German soldier or he could make Norman do it. The cons to making Norman do it is he could possibly pass out or kill himself from the guilt of taking another man’s life. The pros are that he might realize that this is his job and he’s saving more lives than he’s taking. Brad Pitt chose to make Norman kill the man. Norman was very scared and sad. He rejected it at first, but he had no choice. A part of critical thinking is living with the choices that you make, right or wrong. Brad Pitt also had another choice to make using critical thinking. There was a massive battalion coming straight toward the tank that had just broke down. He had the choice to stay and fight or to run and hide. If he stayed and fought he knew he was going to die, but if he ran and hid he and his team would most likely be safe for the time being. Brad Pitt chose to stay, and so did his team. Making this choice, he had to come up with a tactical plan and execute it correctly he also had prepare to die. They all had to think quickly when making this decision because if they had stop to write the pros and cons down they would have died anyway without putting up a fight or having a chance to run. I agree with the choice they made in staying and fighting. Yes, they all died accept for Norman, but the choice that they made was the choice of heroes.

Saturday, April 18, 2020

Womens Perceptions and the Feminist Theory free essay sample

This paper examines how societys perceptions of women affect feminist theory: The author discusses the feminist belief that there is a social division between men and women, in terms of representation and that this division is caused by the perception of an inherent difference between the sexes. This paper discusses this point of view from the works of: Audry Lourdes essay, The Masters Tools Will Never Dismantle the Masters House, Donna Haraways essay, `A Cyborg Manifesto`, and Henry Hwangs adaptation of the classic M. Butterfly. How society perceives women is the root of feminism. There is a social division between men and women, and this division is caused by the perception of an inherent difference between the sexes. As feminists do not believe that a perception of difference should act as a classification for men and women, it is the representation and presentation of this sense of difference that is the target of feminist actions. We will write a custom essay sample on Womens Perceptions and the Feminist Theory or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page

Saturday, March 14, 2020

Consequences of Spatial Distribution and Consumption of Natural Resources at a Global Scale Essay Example

Consequences of Spatial Distribution and Consumption of Natural Resources at a Global Scale Essay Example Consequences of Spatial Distribution and Consumption of Natural Resources at a Global Scale Paper Consequences of Spatial Distribution and Consumption of Natural Resources at a Global Scale Paper A natural resource can be defined as an item that after necessary processing or manufacture is useful and hence meets the needs of the society. Natural resources can be divided into two categories. Renewable and non-renewable. Renewable resources are those which after use will be replenished, if used appropriately. Non-renewable resources are those which come in finite stocks, therefore will eventually run out. Generally, natural resources are spread unevenly over the globe. That is in some areas there may be a concentration of a certain natural resource that may be scarce in another. It is important to note that currently developed countries use the majority of the available resources on an annual basis. Fresh water is an example of a renewable resource. After use it will be replenished. Less than five percent of the water on earth exists as fresh water and less than one percent is accessible as surface water. The distribution of water varies unevenly around the globe. One such reason for this is the variations in the amount precipitation received in certain areas. Currently water is being consumed in a way that it is turning into a non-renewable resource. The world’s supply of fresh water is threatened by growing levels of pollution, more so in developing countries than developed. There are many environmental problems associated with the consumption of water in a way that transforms it into a non-renewable resource. Water pollution heavily affects the functionings of an ecosystem as water pollution directly affects both plants and animals. If current trends of water pollution continue many social consequences will arise. According to a UN Report entitled ‘A Comprehensive Assessment of the Freshwater Resources of the world states that If water pollution continues than two-thirds of the world’s population will suffer ‘moderate to severe water stress’ by 2050. A rise in water pollution can also cause public health problems, specifically water-borne diseases. A lack of adequate freshwater could also place the world’s food supply in jeopardy. There are many political and economic consequences arising from the spatial patterns and consumption of freshwater. A rise in water pollution can significantly impact upon agricultural growth, and ultimately may cause a slowing economic growth. Political hostility can develop if there is not a fair distribution and price of water as was seen in Great Britain when the rates for water increased under private water companies. This rise was attributed to personal benefits for executives and as such political hostility developed. Minerals are an example of a non-renewable resource. This is because the rate at which they are being used is much faster than the rate at which they are forming. There is an inconsistent dispersal of minerals around the globe, in that some countries have more plentiful supplies than others. These inconsistent spatial patterns are attributed to a number of factors. For example coal seams are present in more places than others because they formed from swampland that existed 350 million years ago. It is evident that there is an uneven dispersal of minerals in that 4 countries export seventy percent of the worlds annual iron ore. It is fact that the developed countries consume more minerals than developed. China produces seventy percent of the iron ore extracted every year. However its consumption is so high that it has to import a further fifteen percent to meet its needs. There are many environmental issues arising from the consumption and distribution of minerals. The mining and refining process can have a devastating effect on the environment. Specifically in developing countries where there is less emphasis on sustainability and a greater emphasis on profit there is little funding provided for the rehabilitation of open cut mining sites. This can have a significant effect on the environment. Also the smelting process in the refining of many metal ores release pollutants into the air. One such example is the refining of bauxite to produce aluminium. Bauxite has a high sulfur content and as such when smelted sulfur dioxide is released into the air. Sulfur dioxide forms acid rain and thus can have a devastating effect on the environment. Many economic consequences also arise out of the spatial patterns of minerals. As some countries possess a greater amount of mineral than others, come countries are more economically affected. For example, Australia whose main export is mining of aluminium and coal is higly economically affected by changes in the demand and prices of these minerals. Politicla consequences arising from mineral use come mainly from Trans National Companies and over the issue of sovereignty. TNC’s can be contracted by governments and in return may receive loans are assisatnbce form these companies. The issue of sovereignty over natural resource and land ownership can result in political conflict. An example would be the attempted invasion of Kuwait by Iraq in 1990 over sovereignty rights. Forests are another example of a non renewable resource. Forests are also unevenly distributed around the globe, becoming scarce in places with harsher climates. Forests are especially important for developing countries as a means of food and building material. Approximately 30 percent of the earth’s land area is covered by forest. This amount is decreasing by 13 million hectares annually due to deforestation. The environmental consequences associated with the consumption of forests are not only a great affect on local ecosystems. Soil that is now exposed to sunlight becomes degraded and the amount of carbon dioxide gas rises. This may result in an enhanced greenhouse effect. Socially forests are also important as a means of recreation and for tourism. With the annual decrease in forest these factors are endangered. Economically, the spatial patterns and distribution of forests can have a number of positive consequences. Not only will forest be a means of economic growth but the deforestation process creates local jobs, enhances skills especially in the use of technological machinery. Political consequences come mainly in the form of Green politics. Issues with greeg politics arise when there is great environmental damage as a result of issues concerning the forest. An example of this was in Germany when a number of green politicians were elected because of the deterioration of forest due to acid rain. It is evident that the spatial patterns and consequences of the distribution and consumption of natural resources at a global scale can have political, social, economic and environmental consequences, both positive and negative.

Thursday, February 27, 2020

Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 95

Essay Example orn in 1445, emanated from a poor background that made his future appear unpromising where he joined Franciscan monastery in Sansepulero before associating himself with a businessman (Hogg, Tilling, Edwards, Medlin & Hoggett, 2012). He loved mathematics and it is while working under this businessman as an apprentice left to become a mathematician scholar. In 1494, Luca Pacioli authored his book by the name (translated) Summa - â€Å"The Collected Knowledge of Arithmetic, Geometry, Proportion and proportionality† that prompted him to be a celebrity even to date (Hogg, Tilling, Edwards, Medlin & Hoggett, 2012). In this book, he critiqued the poor mode of instructing mathematics during his time besides devising new accounting concepts that are evident to the present. He was the first person to give a vivid description on double entry accounting alternatively referred as Venetian Method (Hogg, Tilling, Edwards, Medlin & Hoggett, 2012). This new technique utterly revolutionized economy and business besides prompting Luca Pacioli to be a celebrity (Hogg, Tilling, Edwards, Medlin & Hoggett, 2012). Since the time of authoring his book to date, numerous people in diverse fields and especially accounting refer Luca Pacioli as â€Å"The father of accounting† (Hogg, Tilling, Edwards, Medlin & Hoggett, 2012). This is because of incomparable contributions he made in this field regardless of his humble background. Consequently, Summa became one of the most read books in Italy besides being the first for publication by Gutenberg Press (Hogg, Tilling, Edwards, Medlin & Hoggett, 2012). The book’s content comprised of â€Å"book keeping methods† and knowledge on how to compute â€Å"Assets† and â€Å"Liabilities† that are evident to date (Hogg, Tilling, Edwards, Medlin & Hoggett, 2012). Hence, this prompted Luca to be an essential icon in the field of accounting because most of his aspects that are in use even after five Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 15 Essay Example According to the figures in ‘Key World Energy Statistics: 2008’ coal is responsible for 42% of carbon dioxide emissions in the world. Carbon dioxide builds up in the atmosphere and increases global warming by locking in sunlight on earth like a greenhouse. This global warming is causing rise in temperatures and bringing many changes in the weather patterns causing regular floods and droughts. Oil and natural gas also produce carbon dioxide which increases global warming. In addition, although there are large coal-reserves in the world which is expected to last through the next century, the mining of coal in EU can be dangerous and costly in terms of time and money. This is because some coal-reserves across EU are deep in the ground. Even if resources are used to extract coal, the supply will soon run out as it is a finite resource. Like coal, oil and natural gas are also finite sources which might seem abundant now but will eventually deplete as per the consumption. Europe imports 50% of its total energy supply (oil and natural gas) from Russia and Middle East. High demand across the globe for these sources has raised the question of future availability of oil and gas. It is estimated by the Belkin (2008) that Europe will import 65% of its total energy by 2030 the costs of which till that time would have doubled. This dependency of Europe on carbon-based energy is seen as a threat to its economic stability and uncertain increase in energy prices. As the use of carbon based energy will increase, EU has pledged to reduce its carbon-emissions by 20% till 2020 (Belkin, 2008). In addition, the electricity industry in EU is facing a huge challenge of generation capacity investment which will be needed in the future. As technological advancements are increasing the move towards sustainable economics, the growth in wind power generation is seen as one of the domestic sources for electricity generation in EU and as a